A ) Parameters to consider in a biological drawing as follows:
- Clarify of lines/lines not woolly & lines not broken;
- Neatness of labels/rules guidelines;
- Lines not crossed;
- Lines not having arrow heads/horizontal labels;
- Details of drawing;
- Label/lines must touch the parts & labels correctly spelt;
- avoid shading of drawing; draw with a pencil.
(b) Ferns are described as having
- an underground stem called rhizome with thin branched adventitious roots arising from the stem;
- leaves or fronds develop from buds on the rhizome.
- Each frond is made up of several pinnules/leaflets/curled leaves and at the base of the curled leaves are the older ones which have been reduced to brown scales.
- Sporangia or sori develop on the under surface of the mature leaflets and indusium or protective layer covers each sorus.
(c) Digestive organs or structures to be seen when a rat is cut ventrally are
- gall bladder;
- ileum/small intestine;
- colon/large intestine;
(d) Candidates who answered this question could fairly describe how skeletal muscles bring about the movement of the limb of a mammal. However, reference was made to the upper arm of the fore limb.
It must be noted that muscles always work in pairs;
these are the biceps/flexor and extensor/triceps;
when one set of the muscle contracts the other set relaxes;
it moves the bone in one direction; and
when the other set contacts the other relaxes;
it moves the bone in opposite direction;
these two sets of muscles work in opposition to each other/antagonistic in function;
movement of these muscles is coordinated by the Central Nervous System/brain.
(i) antenatal care is the special/total/overall/holistic attention
given to a pregnant woman during the period of pregnancy/gestation
to ensure safe delivery and healthy baby/babies.
(ii) Benefits derived from antenatal visits include:
- Personal hygiene/promotes good health of woman/foetus
- proper nutrition/diet
- regular intake of prescribed medication/ drugs
- regular exercise
- monitoring growth/stages/development of foetus/to ensure resolution of pregnancy related complications;
- leading to safe delivery
- avoid the use of natural/herbal products and unperscribed drugs
(f) (i) Recombinant DNA technology could briefly be explained as
- the artificial combination of pieces of fragments of DNA into a host DNA by means of a carrier system;
- the foreign DNA becomes a permanent part of the host;
- it is replicated and passed on to daughter cells;
- the donated DNA may be from another organism or artificially synthesized.
(ii) The application of recombinant DNA Technology includes the following:
- production of human insulin
- production of human growth hormone/any growth hormone/soma tropic hormone
- production of genetically modified microorganisms/correctly named examples – genetically modified crops/foods/grains/fruits/vegetables/animals
- production of clones
- production of stem cells in animals
- repair of damaged tissues/organs
- production of disease/drought-resistant varieties etc.